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How russia and Ukraine divided the Black Sea Fleet and what it is today for each country

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How russia and Ukraine divided the Black Sea Fleet and what it is today for each country

The full division of the black sea fleet between ukraine and russia took place in 1997, but the countries have faced tensions before and since. Read more about how the partition took place and what is now left of the soviet fleet, which was shared by ukrainian and russian forces

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Exactly 29 years ago, the russian State Duma passed a law to stop the division of the Black Sea Fleet between russia and Ukraine. Here's how the situation with the Black Sea Fleet developed and which forces in the Black Sea today represent Ukraine and the aggressor country.


The situation with the Black Sea Fleet has always been a sensitive issue in relations between russia and Ukraine. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, Ukrainian leader Leonid Kravchuk signed a decree "On the transfer of the Black Sea Fleet to the administrative subordination of the Ministry of Defense of Ukraine.


In 1992, russian-Ukrainian high-level talks were held, which resulted in an agreement on the principles of forming the russian Navy and the Ukrainian Navy on the basis of the Black Sea Fleet. On the way to the complete division of the fleet, its uncertain status affected the situation at sea. Relations between the Ukrainian and russian navies remained quite tense, sometimes leading to physical confrontation between them.


The complete division of the Black Sea Fleet took place in 1997 and included three agreements:


- Agreement between the russian Federation and Ukraine on the parameters of the division of the Black Sea Fleet;

- Agreement between the russian Federation and Ukraine on the Status and Conditions of the Black Sea Fleet on the Territory of Ukraine;

- Agreement between the Government of the russian Federation and the Government of Ukraine on mutual settlements related to the division of the Black Sea Fleet and the stay of the Black Sea Fleet of the russian Federation on the territory of Ukraine.


Russia also pledged not to have nuclear weapons in the Black Sea Fleet on the territory of Ukraine.


What naval capabilities did Ukraine get?


In 1997, when the fleet was finally divided, Kyiv received a quarter of the coastal infrastructure, more than 40 warships, and about a hundred supply vessels. In addition, Ukraine got about 40% of the Soviet shipbuilding industry, including shipyards for the construction of the largest ships.


However, already in 2014, after the occupation of the peninsula by russia, the Ukrainian Navy lost more than 80% of its capacity.




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Black Sea Fleet of russia and Ukraine today


The russian Navy


Before the beginning of russia's full-scale war against Ukraine, the Black Sea Fleet of the russian Federation included the following ships


- missile cruiser of the first rank "Moscow";

- six second-rank patrol ships;

- seven diesel-electric submarines;

- more than a dozen missile boats; 

- seven corvettes, large amphibious assault ships, minesweepers - a total of more than 30 warships alone, not counting supply vessels.


After the russian invasion, however, Ukrainian troops decapitated the russian Black Sea Fleet by striking its most valuable ship, the cruiser Moskva, which subsequently sank.


During the war, the Ukrainian army managed to shoot down or destroy more than 20 russian ships, as well as the B-237 submarine Rostov-on-Don. This was the first time in history that a submarine was hit by cruise missiles.


By the way, we have previously told you how Ukraine, having almost no ships, forced the russian Black Sea Fleet to defend itself.


The Ukrainian Navy


As for the Ukrainian Navy in the Black Sea, the number of forces in the Ukrainian army is clearly smaller, but this does not prevent the Navy from destroying the Frag fleet. The Ukrainian forces were also the first to start creating a fleet of naval drones, which play a key role in destroying russian ships.


Today, there is no accurate information about the capabilities of the Ukrainian navy. However, it is known that since the beginning of the war, Ukraine has lost several ships, including the frigate Hetman Sahaidachny and the minesweeper Genichesk. They were drowned with their crews because of the threat of their capture by russian troops in 2022.


At the same time, the Ukrainian Navy has a sufficient number of combat boats and other warships in service. 


Also in October 2022, the Hetman Mazepa corvette was launched in Turkey, which became the first ship of this class for the Ukrainian Armed Forces. Later, a second Ada-type ship for Ukraine was laid down in Turkey.


The construction of Ukrainian ships in Turkey is part of an agreement to build two corvettes signed in 2022.


As a reminder, we wrote that drones, simulators, artificial intelligence, robots, and multicopters play a very important role in warfare today. Read more about military-tech developments that help the Armed Forces of Ukraine bring Ukraine's victory closer here.


The safest regions of the world: which country will be the best if World War III happens?


Want to know more? Read the latest news and useful materials about Ukraine and the world in the News section.




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